• PHARMACOGNOSY OF ALKALOIDS

    • March 9, 2018
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    PHARMACOGNOSY OF ALKALOIDS

    Alkaloids are basic nitrogen containing compounds obtained from plants, animals & microorganisms having a marked physiological action

    ๐Ÿ“šThey answer the following chemical tests:

    ๐Ÿ“ Mayerโ€™s reagent- (potassium mercuric iodide)——cream coloured precipitate

    ๐Ÿ“Wagnerโ€™s reagent- (iodine in potassium iodide)——-reddish brown precipitate

    ๐Ÿ“Hagerโ€™s reagent- (salt solution of picric acid)———–yellow precipitate

    ๐Ÿ“Dragendorfโ€™s reagent- (potassium bismuth iodide)———reddish brown precipitate

    ๐Ÿ“ŒCaffeine is a pseudo alkaloid drug which does not answer this test.

    TYPES OF ALKALOIDS

    ๐ŸŽฏTRUE ALKALOIDS

    1. Pyrrole & pyrrolidine eg- coca
    2. Pyridine & piperidine eg- coniine
    3. Tropane eg- atropine
    4. Quinoline eg- cinchona
    5. Indole eg- rauwolfia
    6. Purine eg- caffeine
    7. Steroidal eg- kurchi
    8. Isoquinoline eg- opium

    ๐ŸŽฏ PROTO ALKALOIDS

    ย ย ย ย ย ย  eg- ephedrine

    ๐ŸŽฏ PSEUDO ALKALOIDS

    ๐Ÿ“‘๐Ÿ“‘๐Ÿ“‘๐Ÿ“‘๐Ÿ“‘๐Ÿ“‘๐Ÿ“‘๐Ÿ“‘

    INDOLE ALKALOIDS

    ๐Ÿ“•ERGOT / ARGOT / ST. ANTHONYโ€™S FIRE

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: schlerotium of fungus claviceps purpurea, at the ovary of rye plant secale cereale

    Family: graminae (fungus belongs to family clavicipitaceae)

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Derivatives of lysergic acid. Water soluble ones are ergometrine & ergometrinine

    Water insoluble ones are ergotamine & ergotoxine. Only the levo isomer is active

    ๐Ÿ“Uses: Ergometrine is an oxytocic drug but its methyl derivative is preferred as it causes less hypertension. Ergotamine is analgesic in migraine

    ๐Ÿ“Chemical Test:

    1โƒฃ Gives a blue colour with Van Curkโ€™s reagent (para dimethyl amino benzaldehyde)

    2โƒฃ Gives blue fluorescence in water

    ๐Ÿ“‘VINCA / PERIWINKLE

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: aerial parts of catharanthus roseus

    Family: apocynaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Indole alkaloids such as vinblastine, vincristine, ajamlicine & serpentine

    ๐Ÿ“Use: Potent anti cancer agent, hypotensive & anti diabetic

    ๐Ÿ“‘NUXVOMICA

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried seeds of strychnos nuxvomica

    ๐Ÿ“Family: loganiaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Contains two main indole alkaloids strychnine & brucine

    ๐Ÿ“Use: Rarely used as a nerve tonic as it is poisonous in large doses

    ๐Ÿ“Chemical Test:

    1โƒฃ. Section when treated with concentrated HNO3 shows a yellow colour with brucine

    2โƒฃ Section when treated with ammonium vanadate & H2SO4 shows a purple colour with strychnine

    3โƒฃ Strychnine when treated with H2SO4 & K2Cr2O7 develops a violet to yellow colour

    ๐Ÿ“‘RAUWOLFIA / SARPAGANDHA

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried roots of rauwolfia serpentina

    ๐Ÿ“Family: apocynaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Reserpine, ajamlicine, serpentine

    ๐Ÿ“Use: Antihypertensive by preventing uptake of adrenaline

    ๐Ÿ“Chemical Test:

    1โƒฃFreshly fractured surface of the root when treated with concentrated HNO3 shows red coloured medullary rays

    2โƒฃReserpine gives a violet colour with vanillin in acetic acid

    ๐Ÿ“•TROPANE ALKALOIDS

    ๐Ÿ“‘BELLADONA

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried leaves of atropa belladonna

    ๐Ÿ“Family: solanaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Atropine, hyoscyanine, belladonine

    ๐Ÿ“Use: Atropine is a parasympatholytic, thus decreases secretion & spasms

    ๐Ÿ“Chemical Test:

    1โƒฃVitali morin test โ€“ to the drug fuming nitric acid is added & it is evaporated to dryness.

    2โƒฃMethanolic KOH is added to the acetone solution of the nitrated residue. It develops a violet colour

    ๐Ÿ“‘STRAMONIUM

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried leaves & flowering tops of datura stramonium

    Family: solanaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Microscopic Characters:

    Dorsiventral leaf Collenchyma above & below the mid rib

    Unicellular covering & glandular trichomes Xylem surrounded by phloem Anisocytic stomata

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Hyoscine, atropine, belladonine

    ๐Ÿ“Use: Hyoscine is an anti emetic

    ๐Ÿ“Chemical Test: Vitali morin test

    ๐Ÿ“‘COCA LEAVES

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried leaves of erythroxylon coca (bolivian variety) Erythroxylon truxillense (Peruvian variety)

    Family: erythroxylaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Microscopic Characters:

    Dorsiventral leaf. Collenchyma above & below mid rib. Xylem surrounded by phloem & pericyclic fibres. Paracytic stomata

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Cocaine, cinnamoyl cocaine, tropocaine, benzoylecgonine

    ๐Ÿ“Use: Local anaesthetic

    ๐Ÿ“Chemical Test: Drug powder when heated with concentrated H2SO4 gives a typical odour of methyl benzoate

    ๐Ÿ“•QUINAZOLINE ALKALOIDS

    ๐Ÿ“‘VASAKA LEAF / ADULSA

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried & fresh leaves of adhatoda vasica

    Family: acanthaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Vasicine, vasicinone & adhatodic acid

    ๐Ÿ“Uses: Vasicine is an expectorant. It gets oxidized to vasicinone which in an abortifacient in large doses, otherwise a bronchodilator

    ๐Ÿ“•PYRIDINE ALKALOIDS

    ๐Ÿ“‘LOBELIA HERB / INDIAN TOBACCO / ASTHMA WEED

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried aerial parts of lobelia nicotianefolia

    Family: Campanulaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Lobeline, lobelidine & isolobanine

    ๐Ÿ“Use: Respiratory stimulant

    ๐Ÿ“Chemical Test:

    1โƒฃ lobeline solution if heated gives typical odour of acetophenone

    2โƒฃ lobeline in H2SO4 when treated with formaldehyde develops red colour

    ๐Ÿ“•IMIDAZOLE ALKALOIDS

    ๐Ÿ“‘PILOCARPUS

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried leaves of pilocarpus jaborandi Pilocarpus microphyllus

    Family: rutaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Contains pilocarpine, pseudopilocarpine, pilosine & limonene

    ๐Ÿ“Uses: Antagonist to atropine, causes miosis, increases salivation & sweating

    ๐Ÿ“•INDOLE ALKALOIDS

    ๐Ÿ“‘CALABAR BEANS

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried type seeds of physostigma venenosum

    Family: leguminosae

    GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE: Africa

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Contains physostigmine, starch & proteins

    ๐Ÿ“Use: Helps in contraction of pupil, retards respiration & causes bradycardia

    ๐Ÿ“‘OPIUM / POPPY PLANT

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried latex obtained from capsules of papaver somniferum

    Family: papaveraceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Contains phenanthrene type of alkaloids such as morphine & codeine & benzyl isoquinoline type of alkaloids such as papaverine & noscapine. These occur as salts of meconic acid

    ๐Ÿ“Use: Morphine is a narcotic analgesic & stimulant. Codeine is an anti tussive. Papverine is a smooth muscle relaxant

    ๐Ÿ“‘CINCHONA BARK / JESUITโ€™S BARK / PERUVIAN BARK

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried bark of cultivated trees of cinchona calisaya ,Cinchona officinalis, Cinchona ledgeriana, Cinchona succirubra

    Family: rubiaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Microscopic Characters: Cork cells are thin walled. Cortex has phloem fibres. Medullary rays with radially arranged cells. Idioblast of calcium oxalate is a specific characteristic. Starch grains in parenchymatous tissues

    Stone cells rarely present

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Contains quinine, quinidine, cinchonine & cinchonidine. Also contains quinic acid & cinchotannic acid

    ๐Ÿ“Chemical Test:

    1โƒฃn heating the drug in a dry test tube with glacial acetic acid, purple vapours are produced

    2โƒฃ Thalleoquin test: drug + bromine water + dilute ammonia gives an emerald green colour

    3โƒฃDrug when treated with quinidine solution gives a white precipitate with silver nitrate which is soluble in nitric acid

    ๐Ÿ“Uses: Anti malarial, anti pyretic, quinine is used in arrythmias against atrial fibrillation

    ๐ŸŽฏ๐ŸŽฏ๐ŸŽฏ๐ŸŽฏ๐ŸŽฏ๐ŸŽฏ๐ŸŽฏ๐ŸŽฏ๐ŸŽฏ๐ŸŽฏ

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    ๐Ÿ“•ISOQUINOLINE ALKALOIDS

    ๐Ÿ“‘IPECAC

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried roots of cephalis ipecacuanha (brazilian / rio) Cephalis acuminata (panama / cartagena)

    Family: rubiaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Brazilian โ€“ emetine:cephalin ratio is 4:1

    Panama โ€“ emetine:cephalin ratio is 1:1

    ๐Ÿ“Uses: Expectorant in mild doses & as an emetic in large doses

    Emetine also possesses anti protozoal activity

    ๐Ÿ“•PYRIDINE- PIPERIDINE ALKALOIDS

    ๐Ÿ“‘TOBACCO

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried leaves of nicotiana tabacum

    Family: solanaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Nicotine, nornicotine & anabasine

    ๐Ÿ“Use: Stimulant

    ๐Ÿ“•STEROIDAL ALKALOIDS

    ๐Ÿ“‘KURCHI

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried bark of holarrhena antidysenterica

    Family: apocynaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Steroidal alkaloid conessine & norconessine

    ๐Ÿ“Use: Amoebic dysentery

    ๐Ÿ“‘ASHWAGANDHA

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried roots of withania somnifera

    Family: solanaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry:

    2 types of chemical constituents

    1โƒฃ steroidal lactones called withanolides like withaferine

    2โƒฃ alkaloids like withanine, somniferine, anaferine. Also contains alcohols known as somnitol & somnirol

    ๐Ÿ“Uses:

    Sedative, hypnotic, hypotensive & immunomodulatory

    ๐Ÿ“•PYRAZOLINE ALKALOIDS

    ๐Ÿ“‘PEPPER

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried fruits of piper nigrum

    Family: piperaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Alkaloid piperine is responsible for pungent taste aong with piperetine, resins, volatile oils containing limonene & pinen responsible for the odour

    ๐Ÿ“Uses: Bronchitis & gonorrhoea

    ๐Ÿ“•PROTO ALKALOIDS

    ๐Ÿ“‘EPHEDRA / MA HUANG

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried stem of ephedra gerardiana

    Family: ephedreaceae / gnetaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Contains amino alkaloids like ephedrine, norephedrine & pseudo ephedrine

    Uses: Sympathomimetic & bronchodilator

    ๐Ÿ“‘COLCHICUM / AUTUMN CROCUS

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried seeds & corms of colchicum luteum. Family: liliaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Contains amino alkaloid colchicine & demecolchicine

    ๐Ÿ“Uses: Rheumatism, treatment of gout, anti tumour activity & polyploidy

    ๐Ÿ“‘ACONITE / BACHNAG

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried roots of aconitum napellus

    Family: ranunculaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Diterpene alkaloids such as aconitine, neopelline, neoline & small amount of ephedrine. Aconitine is an active constituent but if hydrolysed forms benzoyl aconine & aconine which are less active

    ๐Ÿ“Uses: Externally in neuralgia & sciatica

    ๐Ÿ“•PSEUDO ALKALOIDS

    ๐Ÿ“‘COFFEE

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: dried seeds of coffee Arabica

    Family: rubiaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Contains caffeine which is a salt of chlorogenic acid, volatile oil known as caffeol, enzymes & other phenolic compounds

    ๐Ÿ“Uses: Stimulant, diuretic (due to theophylline), & source of caffeine

    ๐Ÿ“Chemical Test:

    1โƒฃ Murexide test: caffeine when heated with HCl & potassium chlorate gives a residue which turns purple when exposed to ammonia vapours

    2โƒฃ Caffeine forms a white precipitate with tannin solution

    ๐Ÿ“‘TEA

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: prepared leaves of thea sinensis

    Family: theaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Contains caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, oxidase enzyme & tannins

    ๐Ÿ“Use: Stimulant, diuretic, source of caffeine

    ๐Ÿ“Chemical Test: Murexide test

    ๐Ÿ“‘KOLA NUTS / BISSY SEEDS

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: seeds of cola nitida

    Family: sterculiaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Contains caffeine, theobromine & a red pigment known as kola catechin

    ๐Ÿ“Use: Stimulant

    ๐Ÿ“‘COCOA SEEDS

    ๐Ÿ“BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: seeds of theobroma cacao

    Family: sterculiaceae

    ๐Ÿ“Chemistry: Caffeine. Theobromine, other phenolic compounds

    ๐Ÿ“Use: Stimulant

     

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